Muslim Mathematicians

Here You describe About Muslim Mathematicians

Posted May 5,2019 in Education.

Qaisar Tauqeer
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Mathematicsduring theGolden Age of Islam, especially during the 9th and 10th centuries, was built onGreek mathematics(Euclid,Archimedes,Apollonius) andIndian mathematics(Aryabhata,Brahmagupta). Important progress was made, such as the full development of the decimalplace-value systemto includedecimal fractions, the first systematised study ofalgebra(named forThe Compendious Book on Calculation by Completion and Balancingby scholarAl-Khwarizmi), and advances ingeometryandtrigonometry.

Arabic works also played an important role in the transmission of mathematics to Europe during the 10th to 12th centuries.

Algebra

The study ofalgebra, the name of which is derived from theArabicword meaning completion or "reunion of broken parts",flourished during theIslamic golden age.Muhammad ibn Musa al-Khwarizmi, a scholar in theHouse of WisdominBaghdad, is along with theGreekmathematicianDiophantus, known as the father of algebra. In his bookThe Compendious Book on Calculation by Completion and Balancing, Al-Khwarizmi deals with ways to solve for thepositiverootsof first and second degree (linear and quadratic)polynomial equations. He also introduces the method ofreduction, and unlike Diophantus, gives general solutions for the equations he deals with.

Al-Khwarizmi's algebra was rhetorical, which means that the equations were written out in full sentences. This was unlike the algebraic work of Diophantus, which was syncopated, meaning that some symbolism is used. The transition to symbolic algebra, where only symbols are used, can be seen in the work ofIbn al-Banna' al-MarrakushiandAbū al-Ḥasan ibn ʿAlī al-Qalaṣādī.

On the work done by Al-Khwarizmi, J. J. O'Connor andEdmund F. Robertsonsaid:

Perhaps one of the most significant advances made by Arabic mathematics began at this time with the work of al-Khwarizmi, namely the beginnings of algebra. It is important to understand just how significant this new idea was. It was a revolutionary move away from the Greek concept of mathematics which was essentially geometry. Algebra was a unifying theory which allowedrational numbers,irrational numbers, geometrical magnitudes, etc., to all be treated as "algebraic objects". It gave mathematics a whole new development path so much broader in concept to that which had existed before, and provided a vehicle for the future development of the subject. Another important aspect of the introduction of algebraic ideas was that it allowed mathematics to be applied to itself in a way which had not happened before.

Several other mathematicians during this time period expanded on the algebra of Al-Khwarizmi.Abu Kamil Shuja'wrote a book of algebra accompanied with geometrical illustrations and proofs. He also enumerated all the possible solutions to some of his problems.Abu al-Jud,Omar Khayyam, along withSharaf al-Dīn al-Tūsī, found several solutions of thecubic equation. Omar Khayyam found the general geometric solution of a cubic equation.

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